Assets Resources controlled by a government entity as a result of past events from which future economic benefits are expected to flow.
Audit trail Enables checks to be made on individual accountability, intrusion detection and problem analysis. A good audit trail provides information on who accessed the data, who initiated the transaction, the time of day and date of entry, the type of entry, what fields of information it contained, and what files it updated.
Budgetary central government (BCG)

Based on the classification structure developed in the GFS.

Single unit of the central government that encompasses the fundamental activities of the national executive, legislative, and judiciary powers. The budgetary central government’s revenue and expense are normally regulated and controlled by a ministry of finance, or its functional equivalent, by means of a budget approved by the legislature.

Budgetary units Under PI-17, those which are directly charged with responsibility for implementing the budget in line with sector policies and which directly receive funds or authorization to spend from the MOF. Budgetary units that report and receive budgetary funds through a parent ministry should not be considered in the assessment.
Ceilings Indicative maximum budget allocations issued to budgetary units early in the budget preparation process as the basis for preparing detailed budget proposals. The final budget allocations to individual budgetary units may subsequently be adjusted on the basis of the quality and justification of their detailed proposals. Ceilings constitute an essential element in a disciplined budget preparation process.
Central government

Based on the classification structure developed in the GFS.

Institutional units of the central government plus nonprofit institutions that are controlled by the central government. The political authority of the central government extends over the entire territory of the country. (GFSM 2014, para 2.85 and page 398)

Classification of Functions of Government (COFOG)

Detailed classification of the functions, or socioeconomic objectives, that general government units aim to achieve through various kinds of expenditures. It provides a classification of government outlays by function that experience has shown to be of general interest. According to COFOG, the functions are classified using a three-level scheme. There are ten first-level or two-digit categories, referred to as divisions. Within each division, there are several groups, or three-digit categories, while within each group, there are one or more classes, or four digit categories.

Developed by the OECD and published by the United Nations Statistical Division. Functional classification of expenditure applied by the GFS.

Complete debt records Debt data covering all material domestic and foreign debt and credit guarantees of the central government.


PEFA Handbook Volume 1: The PEFA Assessment Process – Planning, Managing and Using PEFA